# Unit 1 Global warming

# warm up

chlorofluorocarbon [ˌklɔːrəʊˈflʊərəʊkɑːbən] 氯氟烃;氯氟碳化物;

“Actually,polar ice caps can expand or retract”

# Reading 1

coastal areas 沿海地区

More proof of warming is the evidence of many animals traveling father from equator.

the depletion of the ozone 臭氧层的损耗

augment or increase carbon dioxide emissions 增强 / 增加排放

penetrate the ozone layer 穿过

mosquitoes will transmit their disease

# Reading 2

1、the ongoing burning of fossil fuels is the leading cause of global warming

2、the gases are being released in greater quantities

3、These gases not only build up to keep heat in the atmosphere,but they also thin the ozone layer.

4、an environmentally harmful practice(way of doing things)

5、CO2 can be absorbed by seawater

6、vicious cycle/circle 恶性循环 virtuous cycle/circle 良性循环

7、the most heat-absorbent gas

8、last up to 100 years

9、water vipor 水蒸气

10、the next prominent harmful gas 第二显著的有害气体

11、asphalt[ˈæsfælt] 沥青 fertilizer[ˈfɜːtəlaɪzə®] 肥料 vaccine[ˈvæksiːn] 疫苗

# Reading 3

1、the global economy’s interdependence on carbon dioxide emitting energy sources

2、Most countries are parties to the UNFCCC(=participate in)

3、the ultimate/final objective of the Convention 协定的最终目标

4、human interference with the climate system

5、the GHG concentrations are stabalized in the atmosphere at a level

6、the economic development can proceed in a sustainable fashion(=in a sustainable way/manner)

7、a lobbying group 游说组织

8、push for a policy (=demand repeatedly/demand)

9、This was justified on the basis that:

10、per-capita (头)=per persion

11、subsequent =following

12、Kyoto Protocol 京都协定书 Copenhagen Accord 哥本哈根协议

13、reduce emissions by an average of 5.2%

14、Most countries accepted legally binding commitments to limit their emissions 约束

15、reject the treaty on the basis that

16、exempts(赦免) sb. from compliance (服从)

17、deny 婉拒 refuse 拒绝 reject 断然拒绝

18、 parties associated with the Accord

19、global mean temperature = global average temperature

20、a binding treaty 一个约束条约

21、take urgent action to meet a goal of doing sth.

22、It also recognized the need to consider strengthening the goal to a global average rise of 1.5℃

# Reading 4

1、The dispute lies in whether or not…

2、but the evidence is irrefutable 不可辩驳的

3、human activities are driving the current period of global warming

4、the overwhelming consensus is that…

5、This prospect is still played down (贬低) and intentionally(by purpose) hidden

6、Through highly selective statistics of research work,······

7、concede[kənˈsiːd] (v.) 承认让与,让步;允许;承认 concession[kənˈseʃn] (n.)

8、enclose (=surround) the Earth in an insulating blanket of carbon dioxide

insulate (v.)[ˈɪnsjuleɪt] 使隔热;使隔音;使绝缘;使免除 (不愉快的经历); 使免受 (不良影响); 隔离;


9、a constant human thirst for more

10、Now it has become apparent that·····

11、pay a heavy price

12、Vested interest group 既得利益集团

13、be opposed to proposals

14、fall far short of doing sth. = fail to do sth.

15、tiny cutbacks in emissions

16、Prospects look bleak indeed 前景不乐观 a bleak future

17、we come to our senses=realize

18、descendant [C] (n.) 后裔;后代;子孙;(由过去类似物发展来的) 派生物;

19、the overwhelming majority of 压倒性的多数

# listening


discard 丢弃

dispose of 丢弃,处理

telecommute 遥控办公

# writing

To synthesize (整合) or combine different pieces of information into your essay

acknowledge its source

illustrate the idea

genetically modified rice that is fortified with beta-carotene(胡萝卜素)

parent hesis 小括号 quotation marks 引号

change the voice (语态) and order of the original sentence

# collocation

# experience

painful experience lack in experience experience a severe recession

improve experience firsthand experience (一手经验) gain experience

# adapt

adapt to one’s needs adapt oneself to the surroundings adapt for such work (适合这项工作)

adapt to the new position adapt to a new culture adapt new environment

# strengthen

strengthen of government strengthen the controls strengthen his position

strengthen the bond strengthen to construct strengthen a belief

# absorb

absorb carbon dioxide absorb with thought absorb the impact

absorb in study be absorbed into a company (融入公司) absorb the information absorb foods into body

# appropriate

appropriate measure appropriate manners appropriate a lot of money (v. 盗用,挪用)

be appropriate for your product (适用于,适合于,也可用 to) appropriate the action

Their many troubles can be missed by a word that is appropriate to the occasion.(合时宜)

# engage

engage a drug deal (缺少 in) engage the staff=employ the staff engage upon a book (从事(忙于)看书)

engage in conversation engage with another part of the machine (啮合) be engaged to each other

# agreement

reach an agreement arrive at an agreement come to an agreement

sign an agreement come across an agreement a general agreement

# abundent

be abundant in resources abundant language abundant emotions

abundant supply abundant source abundant support

# lead

lead to increased cost lead to a serious consequence lead a happy life

lead somebody to a bright future follow one’s lead lead the world in research

# add

His expectations add to the pressure on my shoulder. add to one’s reputation add the interest together

add one with one add up the bills (统计账单) add on insurance (增加额外保险(双保险))

# Unit 2 Urbanization

# warm up

surburban concentration 逆城市化

urban agglomeration 城市群

slums 贫民窟

shanty houses 棚屋

sanitation 公共卫生

migration workers 农名工

# reading 1

the physical growth of urban areas 切实的增长

be largely attributed to = be caused by

project that…=predict that…=forecast/estimate…

at a set time = at a fixed time

Village culture is characterized by distant bloodlines,unfamiliar relations and compretitive behavior.

# reading 2

  • be swollen with pride, the populatiion is expected to swell to almost 5 million

  • the accumulated urban growth of these two regions during the whole span of history will be

    duplicated (重演)in a single generation.

  • A represent the best hope of doing sth A 也是做… 最大的可能

  • advantages far outweight disadvantages

  • exploit its possibility

  • specify the ambition of… (表明了… 的决心)

  • slum dweller 平民窟居民

# reading 3

  • have many adverse effects on
  • stains on sanitation 公共卫生设施的负担
  • mental health disorder
  • scattered (分散的) populations in rural areas

# reading 4

  • deny (doing) sth, deny sth to be (拒绝承认), deny sb sth (拒绝为某人提供…), deny onself nothing (放纵)
  • Three suggestions stand out
  • a violation of people’s rights
  • promote the equality of work and pay
  • This kind of people-centred development knits together the social fabric and encourages economic growth
  • The “urban footprint” stretches far beyond city boundaries
  • A concerted international effort at this critical time is crucial to clarify policy options and provide information and analyses that will support strategies to improve our urban future

# collocation

# exceed

exceed my estimation exceed in number exceed the supply exceed all expectations

exceed the speed exceed $7 million exceed their authority

# reach

reach into his pocket reach the second goal reach the point/level/stage

reach an agreement reach a decision reach to Paris

# lack

the lack of common sense be lacking in intelligence the lack of funds

lack courage feel a lack of confidence

# result

result from hardworking result of the examination result in failure

result to the discussion negative results bring about results

# compete

compete for the post compete with that company competitive prices

compete against sb compete honestly compete on the equal basis

# effective

effective methods be effective against cancer effective in fighting

effective management effective use of money effective control of the city

# profound

profound effects on his work profound sense of guilt profound river

profound thinker profound questions profound man (知识渊博的)

# voice

make a voice recognize a voice voice opinions

voice of footsteps sound of footsteps raise one’s voice in a high voice

# access

access to information access in the area gain access

easy access have access access to the lawyer a cite access (网站入口)

# ensure

ensure good quality ensure safety ensure people’s health

ensure to be there on time make sure to be there on time ensure workers against accidents

ensure a successful experience

# Unit5 Art

# reading 1

  • the question pops up = the question shows up

  • go about sth. 着手做

  • the process or product of deliberately arranging elements in a way that appeals to the senses

  • ecompass a diverse range of human activities=include…

  • The meaning of art is explored in a branch of philosophy known as aesthetics

  • do sth with a communicative or aesthetics purpose

  • be a component of culture 是文化组成的一个部分

  • Art transmits ideas and values inherent (固有的) in every culture across space and time

  • The very notion of art continues today to stir (激发) controversy, being so open to multiple interpretations.

  • It can be taken simply to mean human activities, or any set of rules needed to develop an activity.

  • have a solid grasp of art history

  • trace a line through traditional art to comtemporary art

  • be in sth’s infancy(在婴儿阶段,处于起始阶段)

# reading 2

  • often engage in disputes about…

  • Art is the product or process of the effective application of a body of knowledge.

  • rise to prominence (变得突出)

  • be a subject of much controversy(一个有争议的话题)

  • It will fall under classcifications such as the decorative art…

  • The modern distinction does not work well for older periods.

  • sheer amount of time… 用于强调多少时间。

    • eg. Its quality is determined by the sheer amount of time spent on it.
    • eg. the sheer size of the country

# reading 3

  • it’s not as easy as its terminology 它并不是和它看起来一样简单。
  • Art comprises…=Art consists of…=Art is composed with…
  • leave a permanent mark
  • come to terms with…=compromise with…
  • Art serves as an interactive tool for reluctant learners (被动学习者)
  • A and B go hand in hand 齐头并进
  • liven up things=make things colorful
  • convert dry things into better and complete ones

# reading 4

  • commission sb 雇佣某人

  • political upheaval 政治动荡

  • cause a stir in art world

  • the wide array of styles…

  • *a field of painting…* 作画的一个领域

  • be broken into fragments

# collocation

# broaden

broaden the search broaden the search of… broaden the area

broaden one’s horizons broaden the distance

eg. Science is even filtering into recreational skating, with the development of synthetic ice, intended to broaden appeal and year-round interest.


# controversy

stir up /sparkle/kindle/arouse/cause/provoke a controversy as to controversy

trigger a controversy a hot controversy have a fierce/headted/hot controversy be involved in a controversy

# apply

apply for the job apply the skill apply to this case apply to somebody for something

apply sb apply oneself to the study of…

# address

speak to/address the issue adress/engage oneself to the problem 着手解决 adress the audience

address to the public address the fact deliver an address(speech)

# purpose

accomplish the purpose in the purpose serve the purpose

for the purpose primary purpose with the purpose

# preceding

preceding house preceding year preceding discussion preceding work

preceding station preceding pages 前页

# grasp

***have a grasp of…*** 对… 有把握 beyond one’s grasp within one’s grasp

grasp the opportunity eagerly grasp the apple(http://www.nytimes.com/2006/05/20/theater/20odet.html)

grasp the main idea

# understanding

mutual understanding have a better understanding understanding of the situation

reach an understanding incorrect understanding the lack of understanding

# pose

pose a question pose a threat pose a photograph pose difficulties

pose a task pose disappointment

# come to terms with

come to terms with the fact come to terms with the strength come to terms with changes

come to terms with the rule come to terms with the dilemma come to terms with passion

# Unit 6 Personality

# reading 1

  • inside the person
  • person’s characteristic patterns of behavour
  • internal factors
  • make…consistent from one time to another
  • the bahavour people manifest in comparable situation
  • behave in a recognizably similar way
  • consideration≈factor
  • be attributed to≈be determined by
  • socially inhibited 不擅长社交的

# reading 2

  • be to a large extent inherent 很大程度上是固定的

  • soak up sth 获得,soak up A-type characteristic

  • Too many schools adopt the win-at-all-cost moral standard and measure their success by sporting (炫耀) achievements

  • the passion for doing sth

  • against the clock≈beat the time

  • drop dead 猝死

  • the preoccupation of school with academic work is lessened 学校对学业的关注减弱些

  • be obsessed with time management

  • be a contrast to sth/sb

  • back down 退缩

# reading 3

  • use something as a referencebased on sth
  • a good determinant for our personalities
  • propagate theories of recial and gender superiority
  • push forward their ideas of …

# reading 4

  • assess suitability for employment and promotion or to determine training needs

  • achieve a better fit between people and jobs

  • it pretend (自称,妄称) to capture the individual’s character permanently or completely

  • different people may manifest different aspects of their personality

  • *be cynical about…* 置疑

  • stimulate a dialogue

  • learn sth through a painful confrontation

  • avoid a confrontational situation

  • enhance personal awareness

# collocation

# exert

exert a lot of pressure on sb exert an influence on … exert one’s authority

exert great effort to do sth exert oneself to do sth exert knowledge

# passion

arouse passion develop a passion for doing sth find a passion

stir up passion (激起热情) control passion make passion

# carry out

carry out a plan carry out an experiment carry out the homework

carry out one’s promise 兑现 carry out the enquiry carry out a party

# standard

set/lay down a standard/criteria maintain a standard make a standard

a living standard below the standard low standard

# encounter

encounter a friend encounter difficulty encounter a sudden visitor

encounter each other encounter a plan

# influence

under the influence obtain influence gain influence

exert an influence on… a profound influence influence on/upon sb

# develop

develop a habit develop a character develop the ability

develop a story develop argument develop a discusstion

develop discussion:

  • “Using personal, social and health education to develop discussion and learning on domestic violence is an important starting point, and enables all of these issues to be considered coherently.”

# interest

develop an interest a deep interest arouse an interest

hold an interest cultivate an interest control the interest

# opportunity

acquire an opportunity (不常用) offer an opportunity seize the opportunity

an opportunity occurs miss the opportunity take the opportunity

# enjoy

enjoy the protection/support of enjoy the wide popularity of enjoy access to …

enjoy the increase/growth of… ???

enjoy the influence/attention ??? 不能说错,就是很奇怪

# Unit 1 Multidisciplinary Education

# reading 1

  • be well on their way to becoming experts in their field (为什么不加复数?…)

  • the growing importance of producing prefessionals who have the skills to work with people from a diverse set of disciplines.

    这里 discipline 指学科领域

  • In broad terms…

  • through an interdisciplinary approach

  • different concepts can be integrated to generate new ways of thinking.

  • One of the greatest weaknesses of the current research system is that it remains fragmented, introspective and lacking in

    creative connectivity, both between the participating disciplines and with wider sources of knowledge and expertise.

  • understand the multi-faceted nature of the problem

  • produce a collaborative solution through a common scientific perspective

  • a multidisciplinary emphasis is a prerequisite to producing individuals who…

  • an expert interdisciplinary problem solver

# reading 2

  • be a monument to the power of human inquiry, a physical representation of the development of man’s understanding of the world

  • mark the miles on the rising road of understanding

  • we each add our own stone to the rising wall of human understanding

  • complete regard for the accepted boundaries between different fields of knowledge

  • pursue your boundless curiosity

# reading 3

  • one’s respect for and fascination with nature

  • For da Vinci, the simplicity he appreciated in nature became his ultimate standard in design

  • demand for hands on scientific research

  • fascination for tackling problems echoes the central mission of MIT

  • people of accomplishment rarely sat back and let things happen to them. They went out and happened to things.

  • a formula for inventing the future

# reading 4

  • with measurable outcomes
  • be quite opposite of expectations
  • improve the prospect for our future workforce

# collocation

  • ultimate goal the ultimate outcome ultimate truth of science
  • human spirit in high spirit a brave spirit team spirit
  • feed a family feed the plants feed blood to the brain feed the baby on milk
  • the approach to the airport an approach to the palace an approach to the task difficult to approach
  • personal property a property developer (房地产) property of a substance property prices
  • represent people’s interest represent the defendant(被告) represent one’s concerns
  • strict discipline have no discipline a new discipline discipline oneself
  • political aspiration nationalist aspiration aspiration of the young people aspiration pneumonia (吸入性肺炎)
  • inspire the team inspire confidence inspire loyalty inspire an emotion
  • a global perspective a perspective on life get something into perspective (摆正位置) a perspective of the valley (全景)
  • inherit a fortune inherit parents’ characters a hereditary disease inherit a government
  • generate electricity generate new ideas generate problems generate new jobs

# Unit 2 The scientific method

# reading 1

  • These laws can be discovered through deductive and inductive methods.
  • conduct experiments to test hypotheses
  • be capable of replication and the results emerge as the same
  • explain things in an understandable manner
  • our very presence affects what is being studied

# reading 2

  • I narrated to hime a case of child
  • “because of my thousandfold experience
  • No more than that a case could be interpreted in the light of a theory
  • every conceivable case could be interpreted in the light of his theory
  • sth constitute the strongest argument in favour of these theories
  • it began to dawn on me that…
  • uphold a theory
  • it rescues the theory from refutation only at the price of destroying or at least lowering its scientific status.

# reading 3

  • be confident in the answers to the problem
  • ponder on the various possibilities
  • the first step in understanding the problem
  • collect information on your science fair topic
  • propose an answer
  • the hypothesis is your general announcement of how you think the scientific phenomenon in question works
  • the judges at your science fair will not take points off simply because your results don’t match up with your hypothesis
  • design an appliance to find out… ?
  • how these results match up to your hypothesis

# reading 4

  • The deductive method of reasoning moves toward necessary conclusions derived from correct connections between premises which are selected from among all possible true premises

# collocation

# additional

the additional cost buy additional equipment a heavy additional burden put additional money on

# illustrate

illustrate the point illustrate the difference illustrate the related issues illustrate the fact

# interpret

to interpret it this way to interpret social problem interpret the figures interpret for the deaf

# conduct

conduct a survey conduct a business conduct a campaign conduct an experiment

# previous

the previous year the previous chapter previous experience previous studies

# involve

involve an element of risk involve basic processes be involved in involve subjective decisions

# design

fashion design design a tower a new design in the initial design

# verify

verify the fact verify their situation verify information found verify sth by inspecting

# reflect

reflect light naturally reflect on children’s future reflect on the fact reflect in the mothod

# collect

collect data/information/stamps/evidence

# research

next year’s research grant research into the problem science and engineering research market research services

# support

receive income support give financial support technical support support services